A detailed table of contents can be extremely helpful, especially in textbooks and nonfiction books. First, look it over to see the “road map.”
Use the index to:
The glossary terms that are most important—those mentioned most often in chapters, lectures, and on quizzes—are the most likely to appear on tests.
Appendixes contain reference information like maps, statistics, and case studies.
For narrative books (fiction, biography, personal essays), read the following parts, which provide essential background information:
Non-Fiction and Textbook Chapters
Always pre-read these chapters. While pre-reading, anticipate—try to guess what something is leading to or what is coming next, thinking like a detective or scientist. By practicing anticipating and getting better at it, you will become a better thinker and learner.
For magazine, newspaper, and blog articles, pre-read:
For journal articles, pre-read:
On timed tests with passages and multiple-choice questions, pre-reading long passages is often preferable. Reading takes too long, it is normal to immediately forget about half of what you have read, and it is extremely difficult to answer questions without referring back to the passage.
Pre-reading is much more effective than reading for recognizing main ideas; understanding the main idea is the most important task of readers of informational material. Your purpose is to answer questions correctly, not necessarily to understand, enjoy, learn, or remember the passage.
For standardized test passages with multiple-choice questions, pre-read:
If the first sentence of the first or last paragraph is not helpful enough (too brief, narrow, specific, broad, or vague), read the second sentence of the paragraph. If the last sentence of the first or last paragraph is not helpful enough, read the second sentence from last. In narrative passages, also read first sentences of longer body paragraphs and some dialogue.
Lectures, Speeches, and Seminars
To anticipate the main ideas of presentations, pre-read relevant chapters and/or articles.
In academic settings, look at course outlines, syllabi and/or reading lists as they relate to the specific chapters, topics, or ideas to be covered in the upcoming presentation.
Review notes from the previous lecture or presentation and pre-read any relevant documents.
Meetings and Discussions
Pre-read or review relevant agendas, memos, reports, or documents. Review the minutes from the previous meeting.